The 22nd Alabama Cavalry Battalion (a.k.a. Warren's
Alabama Cavalry Battalion) was reorganized as the 5th Alabama Cavalry regiment
in December, 1862, at Tuscumbia, Alabama. This was accomplished by adding four
additional companies to the six already in the battalion. There is some
confusion about these additional companies, but the following is best
information as to companies added:
Company D, Captain James W. Harper.
(Organized in Morgan County, originally Company G
1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment).
Company F, Captain John Collier.
(Shows to have been organized in Marion County,
could have been Morgan county).
Company G, Captain A.H. Rice.
(Organized in Morgan County)
Company I, Captain G.E. Sandlin.
(County unknown, Could have been Morgan County).
The first commanding officer of the 5th Alabama Cavalry was Colonel Josiah Patterson. Field officers were; Lt. Col. James M. Warren (the former commander of the 22nd Alabama Cavalry Battalion) and Major R.F. Gibson of Lawrence County.
Soon after the companies were organized into the 5th Alabama Cavalry Regiment, they were posted to Middle Tennessee, in the Chapel Hill area. The regiment was assigned to a division of cavalry commanded by Brigadier General William T. Martin. After the Army of Tennessee fought the battle at Stone's River (Murfreesborough), General Braxton Bragg withdrew behind the Duck River and went into winter quarters. The 5th Alabama Cavalry was moved from North Alabama to provide scout and picket duty for that army. General Joseph E. Johnston had first requested that the 5th Alabama Cavalry be transferred to North Mississippi, for duty under Maj. Gen. Van Dorn. General Bragg insisted for the safety of his army in winter quarters, that additional cavalry was needed by his army. General Johnston had issued orders for Brig. Gen. Roddey's cavalry troops to move to Mississippi and join Gen. J. E. Johnston. In early January, 1863, Gen. Johnston countermanded that order and informed General Bragg to take Col. Roddey's force to which the 5th Alabama Cavalry was then assigned. On February 3, 1863, Col. Roddey was assigned by Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk to Chapel Hill, Tennessee, on the north side of the Duck River, so he could afford protection on both sides of the river for 6 or 8 miles to and including Columbia, Tennessee.
Special Orders No. 50, issued by Gen. Bragg on February 25, 1863, reads in part:
VI. The two regiments of Alabama cavalry under Colonel Roddey ****, will report to Major General Wheeler for assignment.
The 5th Alabama Cavalry along with Roddey's Regiment of cavalry, were assigned to Martin's Division of Cavalry, Wheeler's Corps. Because of conflicting orders, Col. Roddey was criticized for not reporting to Gen. Polk. Colonel Roddey is to report every six hours to Polk's headquarters. Col. Roddey makes numerous reports of the scouting in this area. Most of the time it was quite along the approximately 25 miles of front, guarded by the Confederate cavalry.
On March 18, 1863, Colonel Roddey reports:
"that Colonel Josia Patterson with four companies of his regiment and Major Johnson, with five companies from mine, have gone to College Grove to-night to support party sent out by General Wharton".
On March 28, 1863, from Headquarters Army of Tennessee, were issued Special Orders No. 81, which read in part:
"IX. Col. P.D. Roddey's regiment of Alabama cavalry is detached from Brigadier-General Martin's division, and will proceed to Northern Alabama.
On his arrival at the Tennessee River, Colonel Roddey will relieve Brig. Gen. S.A.M. Wood, in command of the District of Northern Alabama, and, on being relieved will rejoin his brigade.
By Command of General Bragg."
On March 31, 1863, Colonel P.D. Roddey from Chapel Hill, Tennessee, reports:
"Nothing new from the front this morning. I am ordered to North Alabama with my regiment by General Bragg, and the column is no moving. I turn over command of this place to Colonel (J.) Patterson".
On April 2, 1863, from the Headquarters of the Army of Tennessee, Tullahoma, Tennessee, Special Orders No. 69 were issued by General Bragg reading:
"The general commanding is gratified at the inspection report of Colonels Roddey and Patterson's regiment of cavalry, made by Lieutenant-Colonel Grenfell, inspector of cavalry. The officers and men of these regiment were found to be zealous in the performance of their respective duties; the discipline was excellent, and the conduct the men toward the citizens in the neighborhood of their camp was most praiseworthy. The arms were in good condition, and the cloting of the men were neat and uniform. In the entire two regiments, after a close and careful inspection, only four horses were condemned as unserviceable. The discipline on parade was excellent. The men formed quitely at the command of the officers in a quick and soldierlike manner. The outpost of both regiments were visited by Colonel Grenfell, who found the pickets well placed and the vedettes watchful. The report of the inspector speaks volumes for the efficiency, energy, and fitness of the officers of these regiments, and is worthy the emulation of the different cavalry commands of this army.
The general commanding tenders his thanks to Colonels Roddey and Patterson, and the galland officers and men of their commands, for the interest manifested by them in perfecting their discipline and increasing their efficiency."
On April 5 and 6, 1863, Colonel Patterson reports his scouts have been to and returned from College Grove, with nothing of importance to report.
On April 15, from Triune, Tennessee, Union Brig. Gen. James B. Steedman issued a report of the skirmish on April 13, 1863, near Chapel Hill, Tennessee. The report reads in part:
"**** The enemy have been remarkably reserved for the past four days. Two Companies of my cavalry, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel (J.P.) Brownlow, went on the 13th within 2 miles of Chapel Hill, and attacked a forage train of the enemy, killing 1 of the rebels and dispersing the guard; but before they succeeded in destroying the train, the approach of a body of the enemy's cavalry forced them to retire.
The whole force of the enemy at Chapel Hill is one regiment of cavalry (Josiah Patterson's). There is a brigade of cavalry at Rover under the command of Colonel (A.A.) Russell. Van Dorn is quite at Spring Hill, with his force".
On April 17, 1863, Brig. Gen. William T. Martin, C.S. Army, commanding cavalry division, reports a skirmish at Eagleville, Tennessee that occurred on April 16, 1863. His report is made from the Headquarters, Martin's Division, Wheeler's Corps, and reads in part:
"Yesterday a skirmish occurred between the reserve of Colonel (Josiah) Patterson's pickets on the Chapel Hill and Union pike. The enemy in force (about 300) advanced upon the pickets and were driven back 3 miles. We lost none killed, but 4 were decoyed into an ambuscade and captured. The enemy lost a number of horses, and are supposed to have lost several killed. They were carried from the field. Colonel P. (Patterson) reports that his officers and men, only 80 in number, behaved gallantly. The enemy's force (one regiment) is at College Grove, and is thought to have infantry supports. Colonel P. thinks the party is foraging ****".
Colonel Josiah Patterson's report of April 16, 1863, verified the report made by Brig. Gen. Martin. He added that Captain (P.H.) Rice was in command of the 80 man detail.
On May 18, 1863, Special Orders No. 132, were issued by General Bragg which reads in part:
VII. Cox's confederat regiment of cavalry is attached to, and will form part of, the brigade of Brigadier-General Martin.
VIII. Colonel Patterson's regiment of cavalry is detached from Brigadier-General Martin's brigade, and will proceed immediately to join Colonel Roddey for duty.
On May 25, 1863, Union Brigade-General J.M. Brannan reports that;
"Cox's regiment of cavalry from Rover have arrived at Chapel Hill, in place of Patterson's. Forrest was expected at Riggs Cross-roads today or tomorrow".
A report from Corinth, April 17 (?), 1863, reads:
"Captain (George E.) Spencer, my assistant adjutant-general, has just returned from Tuscumbia; succeded in getting through all the enemy's camps and obtaining valuable information. The forces are posted as follow:
Colonel Diberll, 900 men, at Tuscumbia Landing; Colonel (Josiah) Patterson, 1000, at Florence; Colonel (M.W.) Hannon, 1800, at Tuscumbia; Colonel Roddey's old regiment, 800, at Tuscumbia Landing. Baxter Smith, 350, 10 miles this side; Colonel Hampton (?), 300, at sam place; (W.R.)
Julian, 300, at Grey's, 6 miles this side and Smith, 100, at Big Bear. The above all cavalry. Between Courtland and Tuscumbia, on brigade of infantry, under Colonel (Brig. Gen. S.A.M.) Wood as follows; Colonel (A.H.) Helvenston, 400; Colonel (J.B.) Bibb, 500; Colonel (W.B.) Wood, Sixteenth Alabama, 400. The last brigade (S.A.M. Wood's) and one brigade of cavalry, under Colonel Roddey, arrived at Tuscumbia last week. This more than doubles their force. They have also five pieces of artillery at Florence and six pieces at Tuscumbia.
Please forward this immediately to General Hurlbut, as it may change his movements. It is reliable, Captain Spencer having been sent there to ascertain the facts".
(The report, by Brig. Gen. Dodge (Union) that the Fifth Alabama Cavalry under Col. Patterson was at Florence, is incorrect. The Fifth Alabama Cavalry remained on duty with Brig. Gen. Martin in middle Tennessee until ordered to join Col. Roddey in Northern Alabama on May 18, 1863.)
In a report written on June 2, 1863, Col. Roddey is reported to have crossed the river at Florence and in a half hour was in contact with a Union force of 2,000 to 5,000, moving from Corinth. Skirmishing continued until Sunday morning when the enemy withdrew, after burning a factory and other buildings at Florence.
On July 14, 1863, Special Orders No. 189 is issued by Gen. Bragg which reads in part:
IV. Colonel Roddey will guard the several fords of the Tennessee River as far up as Gunter's Landing, and patrol between the fords. He will throw out scouts north of the river to watch and report movements of the enemy.
On July 22, 1863, from Headquarters of the Army of Tennessee, orders are issued placing General Wheeler in command of all cavalry in the army and placing Colonel Roddey under Wheeler's command. On July 29, Gen. Bragg advises Maj. Gen. Wheeler that Col. Roddey was being pressed by the enemy. On July 30, 1863, Gen. Bragg directs Maj. Gen. Wheeler to co-operate with Col. Roddey.
The July 31, 1863, return of troops in Department No. 2, General Braxton Bragg, commanding, list the following:
District of Northern Alabama, Brig. Gen. P.D. Roddy.
5th Alabama Cavalry, Col. Josiah Patterson.
53rd Alabama Cavalry, Col. M.W. Hannon.
Roddy's cavalry regiment, Lt. Col. W.A. Johnson.
Unorganized troops, Capt. W.R. Julian.
Georgia Battery, Capt. C.B. Ferrell.
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